双语科技百科(化学) 第43期:漆器

2024-06-11 03:17 阅读次数:

本文摘要:Lacquerware漆器Chinese ancestors began to make lacquerware about 7,000 years ago.中国人早在7000年前就开始制作漆器。


Lacquerware漆器Chinese ancestors began to make lacquerware about 7,000 years ago.中国人早在7000年前就开始制作漆器。In 1978, red lacquer bowls and tubes of the Hemudu Cutture were found in Yuyao, Zhejiang Province. According to scientific analysis, the coatings are natural lacquers.1978年在距今7000年前的浙江余姚河姆渡文化遗址中找到了朱漆碗和朱漆筒,经过科学分析,其涂料为天然漆。

After the Xia Dynasty, the variety of lacquerware increased, and the craft flou-rished for five centuries starting in the Warring States Period from 475 B. C.to 221 B. C.The scale of lacquerware production had already become very large in the Warring States Period. Lacquerware was one of the main economic resources of the time, and there were specific offcials in charge of its production.夏代之后,漆器品种日渐多,在战国时期,漆器业独领风骚,构成长达5个世纪的空前兴旺。战国时漆器生产规模早已相当大,被国家列为最重要的经济收益来源,并设专人管理。According to historical records, the ancient Chinese sage of Zhuang Zi used to be an officer in charge of lacquerware production.Lacquerware was very expen-sive. The production process was verlt complicated, necessitating a strong work force and long working hours. It came in many varied forms and was widely used for furniture, utensils, stationan,r, art works, musical instruments, funeral goods and weapons. The nobles moved their attention from bronzeware to lacquerware because the latter was bright, light, easy to clean, had heat insulation and corro-sion resistant qualities and could be inlaid and painted with many colors.据记述,庄子年轻时曾多次做到过管理漆业的小官。漆器生产工序简单,耗工耗时,漆器品种又尤其多样,不仅用作装饰家具、器皿、文具和艺术品,而且还应用于乐器、祭祀用具、兵器等。

这时的漆器很便宜,新兴的诸侯仍然热衷青铜器,而把兴趣改向明亮、洁净、不易浸、体轻、防水、耐腐、嵌饰彩绘五光十色的漆器。Lacquerware was, however, usually coated blcrck and decorated with red de-signs or coated red and decorated with black designs. About 220 lacquerware ob-jects were unearthed in Zeng Houyi’s Tomb in Hubei Province. They are the earliestand most superb lacquerware of the Chu Kingdom of the Warring States Period.Lacquerware items, including clothing storage boxes, which were unearthed in the tomb are richly varied, of large size and simple style; they reflect the charm of the culture of the Chu Kingdom.The designs on some of the boxes make them very valuable. In the center of one is a zhuan calligraphy character, meaning a star,surrounded by the names, also in zhuan characters, of the phases of the moon in a arcle.On the lwo ends are designs of a blue dragon and a white tiger.This box is a rare relic of great value for research into anaent Chinese astronomy as it is the earliest written record of the moon phases yet found in China.漆器一般髹朱女友白,或髹白女友朱,以典雅的图案在器物表面包含一个恬静的彩色世界。





Some lacquerware was painted with fairy tales.For example, the ancient Chi-nese tale ofHou Yi Shootin,g the Sun,WOS painted on a black coated and red design clothing box.Mushroom-shaped and colored clouds and lwo twisting double head-ed snakes with human faces form the background.On the lwo sides are two trees,the tall one with ii branches and the short one with nine.On the tip of each branch is a circle radiating brilliant light, symbolizing the sun. Belween the two trees, a man shoots an arrow at a bird on the tall tree. The story demonstrates mankind’s successful battle against nature.一些漆器上绘有一些有意思的神话故事。在一件镌刻紫锦纹衣箱的箱盖上,绘有“后羿射日”的故事,黑地朱纹,有蘑菇状的彩云和两条双头人面蛇相互卷曲,两侧有一高一低的树,低树上有1 1个枝权,矮树有9个枝权,每个枝权梢头都绘有一个放射线光芒的圆圈,两树之间一人于是以用箭射下高树上的一只鸟。原本这是“后羿射日”的故事,是人与自展开斗争,以人最后胜利收场的美丽神话。Han Dynasty lacquerware mainly used black and red colors.In the painted de-sign of one piece, there are 90 immortals, and birds and beasts with different pos-tures and expressions.The immortals are dancing with their long sleeves waving in the air, sitting quietly with their chins in their hands, or shooting arrows with con-centrcrted expressions. The animals being hunted are tuming their heads in panic and running swiftly away. Beautiful pattems of dragons, phoenixes, leaves,grass, cloud and various other things were drawn on the lacquerware objects to add to their elegance. Lacquerware reached its heyday in the Han Dynasty and more lacquerware products emerged. These included boxes, plates, earrings,bowls, baskets, trunks, rulers, kettles, chessboards and stools. Meanwhile,many new craffing techniques and decorative methods were also developed.汉代漆器也是以黑红居多色。




汉代是漆器的鼎盛时期。漆器的品种又减少了盒、盘、耳环、碟、碗、筐、箱、尺、唾壶、棋盘、凳子。同时,还首创了多种新的工艺技法和装饰手法。The patterns on the lacquerware are simple lines or complicated pictures, de-pending on the items different functions. The contrast belween the black and red colors creates a speaal artistic effect. The black and red pictures on the lacquer-ware present a mysterious and ever-changing fairy world inhabited by human be-ings and immortals.漆器图案根据有所不同的器物,以粗率简洁的线条或繁褥简单的线条展现出,强化人或动物的动感与为度。